Outreach & Guiding for a National Science and Technology Forum group (NSTF Brilliants) to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT): Friday 23rd to Monday 26th June 2017.

Anja Bruton, the Science Promotions Coordinator at SKA Africa, approached StarPeople to accompany the NSTF Brilliants group (http://www.nstf.org.za/youth/brilliants-programme/) on the tour to the SKA and SALT and we jumped at the opportunity. Anja and Dimpho would fly to Kimberly to meet up with Jansie Niehaus and Wilna Eksteen from the NSTF (http://www.nstf.org.za/) and a group of students, chosen for their exceptional performance in the 2016 Matriculation exams; specifically in the Science paper. This group would fly down from Gauteng and, after a day’s sightseeing in Kimberley, they would tackle the long journey to Carnarvon in two Quantums on Saturday the 24th. They would also be accompanied by two photographers who were tasked with documenting the trip.

Lynnette, Auke, Snorre and I would leave Cape Town for Carnarvon (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnarvon,_Northern_Cape) early on Thursday the 23rd and book in at the Lord Carnarvon Guest House. Anja and the rest of the group were scheduled to arrive shortly after lunch on Saturday and on Saturday evening StarPeople were to present a stargazing session at Klerefontein, the SKA’s operational base about 15 km outside Carnarvon. On Sunday morning the group would visit the SKA site itself and after that, e would depart for Sutherland. On Sunday evening there was to be stargazing session at the SAAO’s Visitor’s Centre and on Monday morning we would tour the SAAO facilities on the hill before heading for Cape Town.

However, as Robert Burns once said “The best laid schemes o’ mice an’ men / Gang aft a-gley.” First of all, Auke had to pull out because of domestic complications. Then the car hire company notified us that the vehicle we required could only be delivered on Friday morning and not on Thursday afternoon as requested. This, of course, scuppered our 05:00 departure plan, but Lynnette and I made sure that we had everything packed and ready to load by 08:00 when the vehicle was scheduled to arrive. However, it only arrived at about 08:30 and, when it did arrive, it was petrol and not diesel driven as had been requested. Disaster! Petrol-driven vehicles are not allowed access to the SKA site because their spark plugs generate interference for the radio telescope. It is more than 600 km to Carnarvon and we had to be there before dark. We also still had to load the vehicle so, if we sent it back and insisted on a diesel driven one, there was no chance of reaching Carnarvon before dark. We signed for the vehicle, finished loading in record time and at 09:40 we set off for Carnarvon.

TOP: The hired Hyundai H1 with the StarPeople door magnets.  CENTRE: Entering Malmesbury.  BOTTOM: Passing Moorreesburg on the N7.

The journey was long but uneventful. We stopped for petrol and Lynnette’s packed lunch in Vanrhynsdorp (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanrhynsdorp) after 290 km. We then stopped halfway up the spectacular Vanrhyns Pass to take pictures. The original pass was constructed in 1880 by Thomas Bain and climbs almost 600 m from the Knersvlakte to its summit, situated at just over 800 m, which is about the same as the top of Du Toitskloof pass. The pass has an average gradient of 1:15 with the steepest section being 1:12.

TOP: Looking West from Piekenierskloof Pass toward the northern end of the Piketberg.  CENTRE: Citrusdal in the distance against the backdrop of the Cederberg with Cederberg Sneeukop just left of centre.  BOTTOM: The turn-off to Clanwilliam and this rebuilt section of the N7 is a pleasure to drive.
TOP: Stop and Go delay due to the reconstruction of the bridge across the Olifants River.  CENTRE: The light coloured patches on the hill in the background are called Heuweltjies and their origin is a much-debated topic. Go to any one of the following links to read up on them. (1. https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Heuweltjie) (2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heuweltjie#cite_note-7) (3. http://www.sajs.co.za/sites/default/files/publications/pdf/SAJS%20112_1-2_Cramer_Research%20Article.pdf) (4. https://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.elsevier-ab969e23-2c87-36b0-a144-1c5ed9ebd6af) BOTTOM: Vanrhynsdorp and the cliffs of the Matzikamma mountain range. Maskam lies at the eastern end while Gifberg is on the western edge. These mountains form the western boundary of the Great Escarpment.
TOP: Approaching the Knersvlakte on the R27 and in the distance the edge of the Great Escarpment.  2nd FROM TOP: Vanrhyns Pass which takes the R27 up to the top of the Great Escarpment is visible in the distance.  2nd FROM BOTTOM: The R27 begins the ascent of the pass.  BOTTOM: Up we go around one of the many fairly sharp bends in the road up the pass.

Shortly after Vanrhyns Pass, we passed the turnoff to the Oorlogskloof Nature Reserve (here is a Wikipedia link http://www.footprint.co.za/oorlogskloof.htm ) with its spectacular glacial floor, but there was no time to visit that on this trip. The reserve is situated just west of Nieuwoudtville (http://www.nieuwoudtville.com/the-treasure/). Next was Calvinia the main town of the Hantam region (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calvinia) with its extra outsize red post-box and, 230 km after Vanrhynsdorp, we reached Williston (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Williston,_Northern_Cape), where we made a brief stop for another light snack and to answer a call of nature, before tackling the last 125 km to Carnarvon. Time constraints had prevented us from visiting the Langbaken cheese farm (http://karoospace.co.za/cheesemakers-upper-karoo/) south of Williston, but we will save that for another day.

TOP: View back over the Knersvlakte toward the West Coast and the distant South Atlantic Ocean.  2nd FROM TOP: View southeast past a mass of protruding sandstone in the direction of the Oorlogskloof Nature Reserve.  2nd FROM BOTTOM: Steep cliffs of Table Mountain sandstone group rise above the road.  BOTTOM: A very large red flower post-box in Calvinia.
TOP: The R63 stretches out ahead of us as we approach Williston.  2nd FROM TOP: The shadow of the Earth and the pink layer of the Venus Girdle over Carnarvon as we approach on the R63.  2nd FROM BOTTOM: Entering the outskirts of Carnarvon.  BOTTOM: Our destination the Lord Carnarvon Guest House in Carnarvon.

On the last stretch, we had to push it a bit and reached Carnarvon in the gathering dusk at 17:45, where we reported to Pieter Hoffman at the Lord Carnarvon guest house in Daniel Street (https://www.carnarvon.co.za/lcindex.htm). This building was the Officer’s Mess during the Anglo-South African War and he has done a magnificent job of restoring it. We unloaded, got Snorre settled in, and walked round to Lord’s Kitchen in Victoria Street (https://www.tripadvisor.co.za/Restaurant_Review-g4226745-d8743616-Reviews-Lord_s-Carnarvon_Northern_Cape.html), also run by Pieter, for supper. After supper, we walked back to the Lord Carnarvon and had the amusing experience of being escorted by a police vehicle because “nobody walks around Carnarvon in the dark”.  This remark struck us a rather odd considering the fact that there were quite a few other local people in the streets.

TOP: Our very well appointed accommodation in the Lord Carnarvon Guest House.  2nd FROM TOP: Snorre making himself at home on his red blanket which we always put over the bed wherever we stay. Although he never, or hardly ever, sleeps on our bed at home, he doesn’t miss the opportunity to do so when we are away from home.  2nd FROM BOTTOM: Interior of the front section in Lord’s Kitchen.  BOTTOM: Outside view of our room in the guest house.

On Saturday morning, after breakfast at the Lord Carnarvon, Lynnette, Snorre and I took to the streets to do some house hunting in case we should decide to move to Carnarvon. The results of this expedition were rather disappointing as we soon discovered that, like many small country towns in South Africa, the homeowners wanted lots of cash for the property that was, in our opinion, worth a lot less. The other aspect which surprised us, even though Anja had warned us about it, was the negative sentiment toward the SKA project and the amount of disinformation circulating in the town. This varied from stories that farmers were being chased off their farms without compensation or that farms were being confiscated in order to distribute the land to previously disadvantaged persons, and even that townsfolk were to be evicted so that four blocks of houses could be knocked down to build a college. We also came across an openly hostile sign in a back yard in Kidd Street. Most obvious was the fact that almost everyone we spoke to had no bloody clue what the SKA was, or what it was about.

TOP: Snorre enjoying our slow exploration of Carnarvon.  2nd FROM TOP: Some locals on the outskirts of Carnarvon.  2nd FROM BOTTOM: Victoria Street and Lord’s Kitchen with the Adjacent Lord Carnarvon Hotel.  BOTTOM: Sign in the back yard of a house in Kidd Street which we found to be indicative of the attitude of many Carnarvon residents we spoke to.

Shortly before 16:00 Anja let us know they had arrived and were having a late lunch at Lord’s Kitchen. We popped around and Anja introduced us to the group. After the meal the group dispersed to their various rooms and Anja, Dimpho, Lynnette and I set off for Klerefontein, the SKA’s operational base, to set up Lorenzo for the stargazing later that evening. Mission accomplished we headed back to town to collect all our warm gear and have supper. After supper, the five vehicle cavalcade made its way back to Klerefontein. On a hill southeast of where we were situated was the large 7,6 m dish of the C-BASS radio telescope (https://www.ska.ac.za/science-engineering/c-bass/) catching the last rays of the setting sun as it patiently toiled away sweeping back and forth to map the radio sky in the 4,5-5,5 MHz frequency range. The C-BASS dish, recently moved from Hartebeeshoek (http://www.hartrao.ac.za/) to Klerefontein, is the southern component (the other telescope is in California) of a project to produce a microwave (short-wavelength radio) radiation map similar to the one produced by the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck_(spacecraft)), but at longer wavelengths than Planck. C-BASS will also measure the polarization of the radiation.

Anja split the students into two groups for the planned activities. One group stayed with Lynnette, Lorenzo and I to do some stargazing. The other group went inside to participate in Skype Q&A session with Jim Adams, Deputy Chief Technologist at NASA (https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/people/adamsj).The Milky Way was magnificent and drew many Ooh’s and Aah’s from the group. I did a basic what’s-up-tonight and then kept talking while Lynnette operated Lorenzo. There was no Moon but fortunately, Jupiter and Saturn were nicely placed and we could also show them a selection of the other well-known objects. After about an hour the groups changed around and Lynnette, Lorenzo and I repeated our earlier performance. Once we had done with the second group, it was packing up time and then back to town for a hot shower and some much-needed sleep.

Sunday morning at 06:15 it was breakfast time at Lord’s Kitchen and, after collecting our packed lunches, it was all aboard for the trip out to Klerefontein where Anja gave us a Health and Safety briefing and had us all fill in indemnity forms. During the briefing, the emphasis was placed on the mayhem electronic devices caused for the radio telescopes. Mobile phones, which all had to be switched off, were a prime source and even my hearing aid’s hands-free device, that uses Blue Tooth, had to be switched off. After all, this had been sorted out, our motorcade tackled the more than 70 or so kilometers out to the actual SKA site. Large sections have already been tarred, but there are still fairly long sections that are very rough and dusty. Lynnette and I had to leave our petrol driven vehicle with Snorre in it just inside the checkpoint at what used to be the Meysdam farmhouse and continue with Anja and Dimpho in their vehicle. Snorre was quite safe, with enough fresh air, water and food to keep him busy till we get back. We made sure that the vehicle would be in the deep shade while we were away too.

TOP LEFT: Coffee was clearly a priority for most of the group.  TOP RIGHT: They came in by drips and drabs.  BOTTOM LEFT: André, one of the drivers, looking most inquisitive.  BOTTOM RIGHT: Leftovers tell the tale of what was popular and what wasn’t.
TOP: A quiet Victoria Street at 07:20.  CENTRE: Entering Klerefontein with the C-BASS dish on the hill in the distance.  BOTTOM: A dusty section of the road out to the SKA site.

Our first stop was the very impressive, half underground, Karoo Array Processor Building. Placing the centre below ground level was essential to minimize the amount of interference from the computers. In addition to being below ground level, the whole installation is housed inside a huge Faraday cage (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday_cage). It is ironic that a radio telescope, which cannot function without massive computer support, also experiences its most annoying interference from computers. It was while touring the Processor Building point that I realized that, if I had simply put my phone on Airplane Mode, I could have brought it with me and taken photographs. Some mothers are just unfortunate to have very dense children! Our next stop was the huge, hanger-sized building where the MeerKAT dishes are assembled. It is only when one stands next to one of these huge constructions lying flat on the floor that one really gets an idea of their overwhelming size. Needless to say, at this point, I mentally administered several more resounding kicks to my posterior for not having anything to take pictures with. After completing this part of the tour it was back into the vehicles for the drive out to the telescopes.

The first stop was the KAT-7 dishes (http://www.ska.ac.za/) where all but one pointed south, collecting data on some unseen object light years away in a distant part of the Universe. KAT-7 was a precursor engineering test bed for the larger MeerKAT array and also served as a demonstration of South Africa’s technological ability when the bid for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) was submitted. However, KAT-7, the first radio telescope ever to be built with a dish consisting of composite material, is also a science instrument in its own right. Each 12-meter dish is fitted with a prime focus receiver and a Stirling pump cooling unit that supplies the cryogenic cooling to keep the electronics at 75 K. The total collecting area of the seven dishes is about 2000 m2 and they function in the 3 to 30 cm wavelength range at frequencies between 1 200 and 1 950 MHz. KAT-7’s minimum baseline (shortest distance between two dishes) is 26 m and the maximum baseline (longest distance between two dishes) is 185 m. These seven dishes will eventually be decommissioned as science instruments when their successors, the MeerKat Array, comes online and be made available for serious amateurs.

Then we were off to find a MeerKAT dish (http://www.ska.ac.za/) that was positioned in such a way that it would be easy to photograph, which wasn’t easy because, despite the fact that they were lots of them, they were all facing in different directions. It really is an impressive sight, seeing these dishes scattered across the Karoo veldt against the backdrop of the low, dolerite topped hills that surround the area, with the dolerite providing a natural radio screen for the telescopes. Considering that only half of the MeerKAT dishes have been erected so far, one can only imagine what a spectacle it will be when all 64 MeerKAT dishes have been completed. The final Karoo Array Telescope or KAT will definitely be a must-see destination and a breathtaking spectacle for all who visit it. MeerKAT will eventually form the core of the KAT radio telescope array. These 13,5m dishes differ from those of KAT-7 in that they use an offset Gregorian configuration for the placing of the secondary dish and the receivers. Each dish is equipped with three receivers; 0,58 – 1,015 GHz, 1 – 1,75 GHz and 8 – 14,5 GHz. The MeerKAT minimum baseline is 29 m and the maximum baseline is 8 km.

Both KAT-7 and MeerKAT are entirely South African conceived, funded and built enterprises and, even after the construction of the KAT, which has multiple international partners, these two installations will remain entirely South African.

Our next stop was the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) (http://www.ska.ac.za/) which is the simplest construction imaginable and is the successor to the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER). PAPER has 128 antennae situated at the SKA site and 32 antennae situated in West Virginia in the USA. HERA is an American, British and South African collaboration that will eventually have 331 antennae of 14 m each at the SKA site. The existing PAPER installation will be moved to a location slightly west of the HERA installation and eventually decommissioned when HERA is fully operational. Whereas KAT-7, MeerKAT, and KAT are multipurpose installations HERA has only one fixed goal; it is going to probe back into time to try and find that moment when the very first stars switched on to light up in the Universe. In the process, it will produce a three-dimensional map of the universe during that specific period using radio waves in the 100-200 MHz frequency range. This project is the radio astronomy equivalent of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), and when they succeed, this project could very well be in line for a Nobel Prize. The antennae are fixed in one position, pointing straight up at the sky and have no moving parts, which greatly reduces the cost of the installation. What makes this project remarkable is that it is constructed with materials bought off the shelf in a local hardware store by people from the local community of Carnarvon who have been trained by SKA scientists. The big dishes of KAT-7 and the even bigger dishes of MeerKAT look like science instruments. HERA, however, looks like an inverted chicken coop or perhaps some sort of landscape art and not very scientific at all.

We went back to the Processor Building to enjoy our packed lunches and, while there Lynnette noticed that one of the Quantums had a flat tyre, necessitating a wheel change. After lunch, Anja and Dimpho dropped Lynnette and I off at Meysdam to pick up our vehicle and then we all traipsed back to Klerefontein where Anja and Dimpho changed vehicles before we all drove back to Carnarvon to refuel. Lynnette and I had done that the previous evening so we just hung around until the whole convoy was ready to start the long journey to Sutherland, which Anja had elected to do via Loxton (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loxton,_Northern_Cape). The just under 70 km from Carnarvon to Loxton was a breeze on a nice tarred road but then came the long 100 km grind on the R356 gravel road to Fraserburg (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fraserburg). We had been contemplating a visit to the palaeosurface at Gansefontein, just outside Fraserburg, but time was against as; seriously against us. We had hardly left Fraserburg when the sun set and, as it got darker, driving became more and more difficult. The 110 km stretch to Sutherland (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sutherland,_Northern_Cape) was going to take much, much longer than planned and our stargazing appointment at the SAAO site (http://www.saao.ac.za/about/visting/sutherland/) outside Sutherland had to be canceled. Because Lynnette and I were the last car in the convoy, we collected all the dust from the four vehicles ahead of us. This forced us to fall back more than a kilometer behind the fourth vehicle before we had a clear view of the road ahead.

We all made it safely to Sutherland and, while the majority of the group was booking into the Sutherland Hotel (http://www.sutherlandhotel.co.za/accommodation.php), Lynnette, Snorre, Anja and I as well as the two drivers of the Quantums, booked into Kambro Kind Guest House, where we were welcomed by Juanita Hutchings. Once booked in we went back to the Hotel where we had a typical Karoo supper consisting of meat, meat and more meat with a few vegetables right at the end of the buffet table.  It is just a pity that the hotel did not think of having a nice fire going in the dining area on such a cold evening.

After supper Lynnette and I, Lorenzo, Anja, the photographers and several students drove out to Middelfontein to do some stargazing (http://www.roomsforafrica.com/establishment.do?id=13879&gclid=Cj0KCQjws-LKBRDCARIsAAOTNd6cUH9fdKlh5bbYksnV0F5D-BQPK4kMRrO8IdxP7D_a6uSOZX_UQX8aAoUUEALw_wcB). The photographers were spending the night on Middelfontein, but the rest of us would have to drive back to town to get some sleep. The right side sliding door on our vehicle, which had been playing up since the previous day went on strike when we started unloading. It first refused to open and then, when we forced it to open, it refused to shut without the use of considerable force and, once shut, it refused to open again so we left it shut. Then the courtesy light inside the door which was supposed to only go on when the door was open, decided it wanted to be on even when the door was shut. A resounding thump on the outside of the door convinced the light to go off and stay off. Once that was sorted out we could get round to the stargazing which was a presented in the same format as on Saturday evening at Klerefontein and, once again, worked very well. So well, in fact, that Anja had to chase us all off to bed around midnight.

On Monday morning Lynnette and I packed up before breakfast and, true to Sutherland’s reputation of being very cold, the windscreen of our vehicle was thickly frosted over and the fishpond had a layer of ice over it, thick enough to walk on. After breakfast at Kambro Kind, everyone gathered at the Hotel before departing for the SAAO site where the group spent some time examining the displays in the Visitor’s Centre before Anthony Mitas took us under his very capable wing and shepherded us up the hill to start our tour at the Southern African Large Telescope or SALT (http://www.saao.ac.za/science/facilities/telescopes/salt/). SALT is an international collaboration between South Africa and several overseas partners and is operated as a separate research entity on the SAO site.

TOP LEFT: In Sutherland, you can stand on your fishpond – sometimes.  CENTRE LEFT: The group gets kinky necks as Anthony points up.  BOTTOM LEFT: The SALT mirror.  RIGHT: A section of the beautiful quilt in the foyer of the Visitor’s Centre.
LEFT: SALT all the way to the dome.  RIGHT: SALT against the backdrop of the blue Karoo sky and some wispy clouds.

Anthony presented a most comprehensive and informative talk to the group and, to everyone’s delight, arranged to have the 32-ton behemoth raised on its air cushions and rotated for us. After SALT we went to the 1,9-meter telescope. This is the second largest optical telescope in South Africa and, as the Radcliffe Telescope, it used to be housed in Pretoria but uncontrolled light pollution chased it south in the mid-1970’s (http://assa.saao.ac.za/sections/history/observatories/radcliffe_obs/). It has since acquired new instrumentation designed and built by SAAO-staff and still has many years of valuable scientific life ahead of it. At the telescope, we were met by Dr. Potter, a senior astronomer on the SAAO staff. Dr. Potter talked most informatively about the telescope and his own work as well as the other projects being conducted on the telescope. He also demonstrated how easy it was to operate the telescope, especially after the installation of modern electronic control systems, and showed the group around the control room as well.

After saying goodbye to Dr. Potter and Anthony, we stopped off in Sutherland to refuel and then made a beeline for Cape Town where the group had an 18:00 appointment at the SAAO headquarters in Observatory. We made one stop at the Veldskoen Farm Stall and said our final goodbyes before splitting up.

TOP: Salpeterkop the extinct 65 million-year-old volcano. The container on the left is the Property of the South African National Space Agency (SANSA) and was recently opened along with the German Aerospace Centre’s dome (DLR) (http://www.sansa.org.za/spacescience/resource-centre/news/1622-another-eye-towards-the-sky-unveiling-south-africa-s-optical-space-research-laboratory?platform=hootsuite). The white pillar on the right used to carry a German site testing telescope – I think! CENTRE: A very bored traveling cat called Snorre.  BOTTOM: Descending the Hex Pass.

My only regret is that with the group split over several vehicles it was impossible to do any guiding while en route. Although we considered stopping the vehicles at points of interest, it would not have been practical from a safety point of view. Time constraints, which played an important role during the trip, virtually canceled the possibility of additional stops even if safety had not been an important consideration.

TOP: A scene north of the R27 as one approaches Calvinia.  2nd FROM TOP: Those five crumbed mushrooms were quite good, but they cost R9 each at Lord’s Kitchen!.  2nd FROM BOTTOM: The two crumbed pork chops served by Lord’s kitchen were probably the largest I have ever been served in a restaurant and they were also probably the most tender and juicy ones too..  BOTTOM: It’s a good thing we didn’t stay too much longer in SALT or there would have been some very stiff necks the next day.

I will post more photos at a later stage as they become available from other people who were on the trip as well as the two official photographers.

Norwegian Tour: Tuesday 03rd of January to Sunday 15th January 2017.

Lynnette, Snorre and I had just returned from Leeuwenboschfontein so everything was a bit rushed but finally the big day had arrived; Anton Camilla, Viljé, Birk and Anton’s in-laws were finally due to arrive. We had been looking forward to this visit for a long time and it felt as if they took ages to eventually appear in the arrival hall at Cape Town International. When they eventually did arrive there was so much excitement that nobody took any photographs!  Anyway, we got them to the Kolping Guest House in Durbanville safely after making a detour to our place first because the visitors wanted to see where we lived. We let them take it easy for the rest of the day and on Wednesday we went over the tour itinerary for the rest of their stay.

Thursday the 05th of January we set off bright and early for our 08:30 appointment at Sadie Family Wines in the Aprilskloof on the north-western slopes of the Paardeberg. The winery is situated in the Swartland region and the closest town is Malmesbury. Access to the venue is via unsurfaced roads, which the Vito does not like. We were met by Christine who handed us over to Paul for a most instructive tour of the cellar followed by a well-presented wine tasting. Eden Sadie, the driving force behind Sadie Wines is considered by many to be the enfant terrible of the new generation of Swartland wine architects. He was previously the winemaker during the development of the Spice Route wines at Fairview. His return to grass roots winemaking and the extensive, almost exclusive use of decades old, previously neglected bush vine vineyards to make exceptional wines has caused quite a stir. Most of these vineyards are a long way from the winery too and some are also ungrafted vines which is very unusual considering the fact that grafting pulled the South African wine industry back from the brink of total collapse during the Phylloxera in the late 19th century.

TOP LEFT: The start of the tour and we are all gathered in the shade of a convenient tree to listen to Paul. TOP CENTRE: The oldest building on the property, where it all started. TOP RIGHT: Huge earthenware vats, reminiscent of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves. CENTRE: The Sadie company logo. BOTTOM LEFT: The delightfully cool maturation cellar. BOTTOM CENTRE: We invade the maturation cellar in search of knowledge and lower temperatures. BOTTOM RIGHT: The group enjoys the lower temperature in the cellar because outside it would hit the low 40’s later in the day.
TOP LEFT: The start of the tour and we are all gathered in the shade of a convenient tree to listen to Paul. TOP CENTRE: The oldest building on the property, where it all started. TOP RIGHT: Huge earthenware vats, reminiscent of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves. CENTRE: The Sadie company logo. BOTTOM LEFT: The delightfully cool maturation cellar. BOTTOM CENTRE: We invade the maturation cellar in search of knowledge and lower temperatures. BOTTOM RIGHT: The group enjoys the lower temperature in the cellar because outside it would hit the low 40’s later in the day.
TOP LEFT: Tasting in progress. TOP RIGHT: Tasting requires concentration especially for wines of this high quality. CENTRE: The range of Old Vineyard wines; really something very special. BOTTOM LEFT: The Columella is in a class of its own. BOTTOM RIGHT: Mev Kirsten might be from octogenarian bush vines but she outdoes the younger competitors
TOP LEFT: Tasting in progress. TOP RIGHT: Tasting requires concentration especially for wines of this high quality. CENTRE: The range of Old Vineyard wines; really something very special. BOTTOM LEFT: The Columella is in a class of its own. BOTTOM RIGHT: Mev Kirsten might be from octogenarian bush vines but she outdoes the younger competition with consummate ease.

Next up was Lammershoek, which is quite literally just around the corner from Sadie. In fact, the Sadie setup is on a small piece of property originally purchased from Lammershoek. At Lammershoek Zaine was waiting for us. He first conducted a comprehensive and informative tasting, which included a brief history of Lammershoek and an explanation of the objectives of the new management. After the tasting, he took us on a tour of the cellar. Lammershoek has undergone considerable changes since the introduction of overseas capital in a project spearheaded by German football legend Franz Beckenbauer. Despite all the new innovations and increased capital flow their wines are good but not yet in the same class as those of their much smaller next door neighbour.

TOP LEFT: Lammershoek under the guidance of Franz Beckenbauer is on a new track. TOP RIGHT: The tasting commences in a nice new, modern tasting room. CENTRE: Part of the revamped cellar at Lammershoek. BOTTOM LEFT: The fermentation cellar with its epoxy lined open concrete fermentation vats. BOTTOM RIGHT: Viljé and Lynnette busy with an open air language instruction class.
TOP LEFT: Lammershoek under the guidance of Franz Beckenbauer is on a new track. TOP RIGHT: The tasting commences in a nice new, modern tasting room. CENTRE: Part of the revamped cellar at Lammershoek. BOTTOM LEFT: The fermentation cellar with its epoxy lined open concrete fermentation vats. BOTTOM RIGHT: Viljé and Lynnette busy with an open air language instruction class.

After Lammershoek we were off to Porseleinberg and Calie Louw and that proved to be quite an expedition, over roads that I would normally not have taken the Vito on. The setting of this small winery on top of the Porseleinberg, amid vineyards belonging to Boekenhoutskloof in Franschhoek, is spectacular with 360-degree panoramic views over the Swartland. The wines were as spectacular as the view, if not more so, and Calie’s laid back style of presentation belies his deep appreciation of wine and knowledge of wine crafting.

TOP LEFT: A very nice piece of polished schist inscribed with the Porseleinberg name but displayed in the Boekenhoutskloof cellars in Franschhoek. CENTRE LEFT: In the cellar which just seems far too small for such a big wine. BOTTOM LEFT: A vertical tasting of several vintages of this exceptional wine led by Calie Louw in person. TOP RIGHT: The Young Guns who have upended wine making in the Swartland – Calie Louw, Eben Sadie, Addie Badenhorst and Chris & Andrea Mullineux, depicted in 2012. BOTTOM RIGHT: The same crew on display in 2013.
TOP LEFT: A very nice piece of polished schist inscribed with the Porseleinberg name but displayed in the Boekenhoutskloof cellars in Franschhoek. CENTRE LEFT: In the cellar which just seems far too small for such a big wine. BOTTOM LEFT: A vertical tasting of several vintages of this exceptional wine led by Calie Louw in person. TOP RIGHT: The Young Guns who have upended wine making in the Swartland – Calie Louw, Eben Sadie, Addie Badenhorst and Chris & Andrea Mullineux, depicted in 2012. BOTTOM RIGHT: The same crew on display in 2013.

An interesting fact and one which is suitable for deep discussions over a bottle of one these excellent wines is the fact that Eben Sadie, Callie Louw and Addie Badenhorst of Badenhorst Family Wines on Kalmoesfontein, where we regrettably did not visit, were all keen surfers in their younger days. I believe Eben at one stage actually considered making it a career choice.

Our next stop, after negotiating the daunting gravel road back to the tarred road near Hermon, was at the established and well known Allesverloren wine estate in Riebeeck West.  We first had a late lunch as everyone was more than just a bit peckish by this stage. Lunch was good but the red wines and presentation of the tasting were both a bit of a letdown. The desert wines, however, were excellent. After the tasting, we returned to the guest house with everyone feeling that Thursday had been a long day.

Friday the 5th saw us make an early start for Hartenberg in the Bottelary area west of Stellenbosch.  There we had a most enjoyable cheese board and light snacks followed by an informative and well-presented tasting of their excellent wines. Hartenberg is probably one of the nicest wineries to visit and the grounds are so well maintained too. Their wines are excellent as well, which makes every visit doubly rewarding. We enjoyed the visit so much that we completely forgot to take any pictures! It is just such a pity they uprooted that Pontac bush vine vineyard of theirs some years ago, such a pity.

Our next stop was for a Fairview Master Tasting, which is always a winner. Good wines, some actually excellent and all very well presented in the tasting by properly trained staff; jolly good show Fairview. From Fairview, we nipped next door to do the Spice Route Lunch and tasting.  The wines were definitely a disappointment after Fairview and they were also presented in a very slap-dash manner which did nothing to enhance the quality of either the wine or the general experience. After the Spice Route, back to the guest house, we all went.

TOP LEFT: Anton, Birk and Viljé. TOP RIGHT: In the tasting room for the Master Tasting at Fairview. CENTRE: The view from the restaurant at Allesverloren across the wheat fields and vineyards toward Gouda, Saron and Nieuwekloof Pass. BOTTOM LEFT: A Mad max type vehicle at Fairview. BOTTOM RIGHT: Gathered for lunch at the Spice Route.
TOP LEFT: Anton, Birk and Viljé. TOP RIGHT: In the tasting room for the Master Tasting at Fairview. CENTRE: The view from the restaurant at Allesverloren across the wheat fields and vineyards toward Gouda, Saron and Nieuwekloof Pass. BOTTOM LEFT: A Mad max type vehicle at Fairview. BOTTOM RIGHT: Gathered for lunch at the Spice Route.

On Saturday the 7th we tackled the V&A Waterfront and the Two Oceans Aquarium followed by supper at Den Anker serviced as usual by the impeccable Patrick.

TOP LEFT: Meal at Colcachio in the Willowbridge Centre with Anne-Kirsten, Erland, Linda and Harald. TOP RIGHT: Anton and Birk. CENTRE RIGHT: Viljé and Birk in the V&A shopping centre. BOTTOM RIGHT: Viljé and Birk get all the attention from Harald, Anton and Lynnette. BOTTOM CENTRE: At Den Anker in the V&A waterfront with Harald, Anne-Kirsten, Erland, Linda, Edward and Anton. BOTTOM LEFT: A deep-sea salvage vessel in the Robinson Dry Dock in the Alfred Basin. It was built in 1882 and is the oldest functional dry dock of this type in use anywhere in the world.
TOP LEFT: Meal at Colcachio in the Willowbridge Centre with Anne-Kirsten, Erland, Linda and Harald. TOP RIGHT: Anton and Birk. CENTRE RIGHT: Viljé and Birk in the V&A shopping centre. BOTTOM RIGHT: Viljé and Birk get all the attention from Harald, Anton and Lynnette. BOTTOM CENTRE: At Den Anker in the V&A waterfront with Harald, Anne-Kirsten, Erland, Linda, Edward and Anton. BOTTOM LEFT: A deep-sea salvage vessel in the Robinson Dry Dock in the Alfred Basin. It was built in 1882 and is the oldest functional dry dock of this type in use anywhere in the world.

Sunday the 8th Lynnette and I prepared a meal which we took to the guest house and enjoyed there. We were joined for the occasion by Lenelle and Susan.

TOP LEFT: Lynnette and Lynda arrange the spread Lynnette and I prepared for Sunday lunch at Kolping. CENTRE LEFT: Camilla, Anton, Harald, Lenelle, Susan and Lynnette with her back to the camera. BOTTOM LEFT: Yummy! TOP RIGHT: Anton, Lenelle, Susan and Viljé. BOTTOM RIGHT: At Orca we have Camilla, Linda hidden behind her, Erland, Harald, Anton, and Viljé with her back to the Camera and Birk’s head just showing at the bottom of the photograph.
TOP LEFT: Lynnette and Lynda arrange the spread Lynnette and I prepared for Sunday lunch at Kolping. CENTRE LEFT: Camilla, Anton, Harald, Lenelle, Susan and Lynnette with her back to the camera. BOTTOM LEFT: Yummy! TOP RIGHT: Anton, Lenelle, Susan and Viljé. BOTTOM RIGHT: At Orca we have Camilla, Linda hidden behind her, Erland, Harald, Anton, and Viljé with her back to the Camera and Birk’s head just showing at the bottom of the photograph.

On Monday the 09th we were off to Stellenbosch where we started the day at Reynecke Wines. Their organic policy always creates an interesting discussion with visitors and our visit was no exception. Their wines were interesting, some very good in fact and the presentation by Nuschka was one of the best and most professional we encountered on our various visits.

From Reynecke we nipped around the corner to De Toren.  Here the wine crafter, Charles Williams was personally on hand to take us on the tour.  He started in the vineyard explaining their vineyard policy and them we toured the cellar before ending up in the very cosy little tasting room. The tasting was well presented and the tour was very informative and professionally conducted but, although the wines were good they were not really outstanding. After De Toren, we went to Skilpadvlei, which is just down the road, for lunch.

After lunch, we visited Raats Family Wines with great expectations. Unfortunately, the tasting was a bit of a disappointment.  The wines were not well presented and some of them seemed to have been open quite a while. It is really a pity that a presenter, who seems otherwise to be a very informed person, does not take the trouble to ensure that a tasting is properly presented. A sloppy tasting definitely detracts from the quality of the wines even if they are good or even excellent ones.  After Raats we made a beeline for home to rest up for the next day’s wine tasting.

TOP LEFT: Very well presented tasting with Nuschka at Reynecke Wines. TOP CENTRE: A short talk outside with Charles Williams before going into the cellar at De Toren. TOP RIGHT: Inside the lovely cool cellar with its delicious wine aromas at De Toren. CENTRE: Lunch at Skilpadvlei. BOTTOM LEFT: Maturation cellar at de Toren. BOTTOM CENTRE: Tasting at De Toren. BOTTOM RIGHT: Tasting at Raats Family winery.
TOP LEFT: Very well presented tasting with Nuschka at Reynecke Wines. TOP CENTRE: A short talk outside with Charles Williams before going into the cellar at De Toren. TOP RIGHT: Inside the lovely cool cellar with its delicious wine aromas at De Toren. CENTRE: Lunch at Skilpadvlei. BOTTOM LEFT: Maturation cellar at de Toren. BOTTOM CENTRE: Tasting at De Toren. BOTTOM RIGHT: Tasting at Raats Family winery.

Tuesday the 10th saw us back in the Stellenbosch area and our trip started at the well respected Kanonkop estate. Lynnette and I, being the designated drivers, stayed outside while the rest of the crew went inside to do the tasting. The tasting was apparently a bit of a disappointment because it is very commercialised.  One apparently has to have at least ten people for a proper tasting but we were not informed about this when we phoned to make our reservation and that is simply slipshod administration. Nevertheless, their wines are good, in fact very good but the overall impression would have been better with a more personalised tasting for our overseas visitors.

TOP LEFT: Standing tasting at Kanonkop. TOP RIGHT: Lynnette with Viljé and Birk under the oaks at Kanonkop. BOTTOM: Serious concentration for the tasters.
TOP LEFT: Standing tasting at Kanonkop. TOP RIGHT: Lynnette with Viljé and Birk under the oaks at Kanonkop. BOTTOM: Serious concentration for the tasters.

After Kanonkop we drove to Beyerskloof, who regard themselves as the Pinotage Kings, for a tasting and lunch. The tasting had the same problem as the one at Kanonkop and here to we had not been told of any other arrangements that we could have made when we phoned to enquire about the tastings. Their wines are good and some are excellent but our guests would really liked to have done the tasting blind in a separate tasting area.

TOP: Beyerskloof restaurant from the parking area. BOTTOM LEFT: For those with surplus cash here is one way to spend it, buy a Mendelazar of Beyerskloof Pinotage. BOTTOM RIGHT: The tasters and Lynnette with Birk in the stroller. Here one can see that, like at Kanonkop, one tastes in an open public area.
TOP: Beyerskloof restaurant from the parking area. BOTTOM LEFT: For those with surplus cash here is one way to spend it, buy a Mendelazar of Beyerskloof Pinotage. BOTTOM RIGHT: The tasters and Lynnette with Birk in the stroller. Here one can see that, like at Kanonkop, one tastes in an open public area.

After lunch, the party split up and one group, driven by Lynnette, went looking for diamonds in Stellenbosch while the second group headed for Tokara to taste more wines.  Tokara is a very impressive venue but, as I have experienced before, their tasting presentation is really not up to standard. A tasting where someone slops the wine into your glass then races through a memorised bit of information, spins round and marches off before you have had time to even taste the wine is not a tasting, it is a farce. Add to this the fact that their wines are not as good as they would like to believe they are and Tokara was a disappointment.  After Tokara, we picked up the rest of the party in Stellenbosch and headed for home.

Wednesday the 11th the group did a township tour with Imvuyo Township Tours & Chippa Mbuyiseli Mngangwa.  The group were ecstatic about his punctuality and service delivery. Good work Chippa, I will certainly use you again. Later that afternoon we went to Orca in Melkbos for supper and that was, as always, a worthwhile experience.

Franschhoek was the destination for Anton Erland and I on Thursday the 12th while Lynnette took the ladies to Cape Town where they wanted to do some serious shopping. The first stop in Franschhoek was Boekenhoutskloof, the umbrella company for Porseleinberg.  What a difference though! The place is all glitz, glass and glamour and makes Porseleinberg look like a pauper’s digs. However, their wine quality does not come close to that of Porseleinberg. Some of it is good but the guests did not think there was anything outstanding.

TOP LEFT: The impressive tasting room at Boekenhoutskloof. TOP CENTRE: The serious business of actually deciding which wine to buy. TOP RIGHT: The old mud and stone walls of the cellar. Note the holes drilled by the wasps to hide the caterpillars and spiders they catch as food for the still to be hatched young. BOTTOM: This door leaves no doubt as to where you are.
TOP LEFT: The impressive tasting room at Boekenhoutskloof. TOP CENTRE: The serious business of actually deciding which wine to buy. TOP RIGHT: The old mud and stone walls of the cellar. Note the holes drilled by the wasps to hide the caterpillars and spiders they catch as food for the still to be hatched young. BOTTOM: This door leaves no doubt as to where you are.

Next stop was Haute Cabriére at the foot of the Franschhoek Pass. The tasting was presented in very much the same fashion as the one at Tokara, perhaps a little better, and the wines were good but lacklustre with nothing to write home about. After this disappointment, we headed for Mullineux & Leeu Family Wines with high hopes. On arrival, it was clear that this place has money and spends it. The tasting emporium is impressive and the attention very personal. Lizzie, the presenter, was informative and knowledgeable about a wide range of topics related to the wines we tasted. It might seem like nit-picking, but the amount given to taste was really minuscule compared to all the other tasting we had attended and the speed with which the bottles were whisked away, clearly indicated that there was no chance of tasting anything a second time. Considering that this was one of the more expensive tastings this skimpiness is inexplicable.

TOP LEFT: Anton, Erland and Harald, tasting at Tokara, probably the least professionally presented tasting we had. TOP RIGHT: The tasting and wine purchase area at Tokara. BOTTOM LEFT: Anton and Erland outside Haut Cabriére with which they were also unimpressed. BOTTOM RIGHT: Erland and Anton outside the imposing entrance to the Mullineux Leeu wine emporium in Franschhoek.
TOP LEFT: Anton, Erland and Harald, tasting at Tokara, probably the least professionally presented tasting we had. TOP RIGHT: The tasting and wine purchase area at Tokara. BOTTOM LEFT: Anton and Erland outside Haut Cabriére with which they were also unimpressed. BOTTOM RIGHT: Erland and Anton outside the imposing entrance to the Mullineux Leeu wine emporium in Franschhoek.

After Mullineux and Leeu we were off to La Motte, making it just before closing time. Unfortunately, the proximity to closing time seemed to also have affected the tasting session. It was rushed to the point of being rude and the wines were a disappointment too. If you take somebody’s money for a tasting then, irrespective of how close it is to closing time, the person is entitled to the same quality tasting experience as somebody who rocked up two hours earlier. The highlight of the visit was the bright yellow Ferrari in the parking area; what a machine! We drove home with mixed feelings about Franschhoek and its wines.

Friday the 13th was Anton’s birthday and we started that off with a surprise birthday breakfast at Kolping Guest House and ended the day with a dinner at the Cattle Baron in the Tygervalley Waterfront.

TOP LEFT: The dining hall at Kolping set up for Anton’s 40th birthday. TOP CENTRE: The menu for the birthday breakfast. TOP RIGHT: Charmain’s cupcakes. BOTTOM: Cupcakes on display.
TOP LEFT: The dining hall at Kolping set up for Anton’s 40th birthday. TOP CENTRE: The menu for the birthday breakfast. TOP RIGHT: Charmain’s cupcakes. BOTTOM: Cupcakes on display.
TOP LEFT: Lynnette, Erland, Lynda, Petro, Deon, Ansie and Ma Peggy. TOP RIGHT: Harald and Anne-Kirsten. BOTTOM LEFT: Deon, Ansie and Ma Peggy. BOTTOM RIGHT: Harald, Lynnette, Erland and Linda.
TOP LEFT: Lynnette, Erland, Lynda, Petro, Deon, Ansie and Ma Peggy. TOP RIGHT: Harald and Anne-Kirsten. BOTTOM LEFT: Deon, Ansie and Ma Peggy. BOTTOM RIGHT: Harald, Lynnette, Erland and Linda.
TOP LEFT: Harald, Birk and Anton Viljé (only her head) and Camilla. TOP RIGHT: Peter, Freda, Nadine, Susan, Lenelle, Erland, Harald, Anne-Kirsten and Lynnette (back to the camera). CENTRE: Group photo taken by Susan, Front from left to right: Ansie, Viljé, Ma Peggy, Petro, Nadine, 2nd Row from left to right: Linda, Anne-Kirsten, Birk, Camilla, Lynnette, Edward, Lenelle, Back from left to right: Erland, Harald, Anton, Deon, Peter. BOTTOM LEFT: Anton, Birk, Viljé, Camilla, Linda, Petro, Deon, Ansie, Ma Peggy (hidden) and Lynnette. BOTTOM RIGHT: Peter, Freda, Nadine, Susan, Lynnette, Erland, Harald, Anne-Kirsten, Anton, Viljé, Camilla, Linda, Deon, Ansie, Ma Peggy, Edward, Birk.
TOP LEFT: Harald, Birk and Anton Viljé (only her head) and Camilla. TOP RIGHT: Peter, Freda, Nadine, Susan, Lenelle, Erland, Harald, Anne-Kirsten and Lynnette (back to the camera). CENTRE: Group photo taken by Susan, Front from left to right: Ansie, Viljé, Ma Peggy, Petro, Nadine, 2nd Row from left to right: Linda, Anne-Kirsten, Birk, Camilla, Lynnette, Edward, Lenelle, Back from left to right: Erland, Harald, Anton, Deon, Peter. BOTTOM LEFT: Anton, Birk, Viljé, Camilla, Linda, Petro, Deon, Ansie, Ma Peggy (hidden) and Lynnette. BOTTOM RIGHT: Peter, Freda, Nadine, Susan, Lynnette, Erland, Harald, Anne-Kirsten, Anton, Viljé, Camilla, Linda, Deon, Ansie, Ma Peggy, Edward, Birk.

On Saturday the 14th we went on a short tour of the Peninsula which included only Boulders and Cape Point. At Cape Point, some members of the party walked up to the lighthouse and after that, we drove down to the Cape of Good Hope before going home. Judging by the subdued appearance of the group it looked as if the pace was starting to take its toll

TOP: Anne-Kirsten and Harald make their way down the boardwalk toward the entrance of the Boulders penguin area. 2nd FROM TOP: Waiting for the tickets are Anton, Lynnette, Harald, Anne-Kirsten and over on the far right are Erland and Linda. 2ND FROM BOTTOM: Looking over Simons Bay and False Bay toward Muizenberg. BOTTOM: Penguins, penguins and yet more penguins spread across the beach at Boulders.
TOP: Anne-Kirsten and Harald make their way down the boardwalk toward the entrance of the Boulders penguin area. 2nd FROM TOP: Waiting for the tickets are Anton, Lynnette, Harald, Anne-Kirsten and over on the far right are Erland and Linda. 2ND FROM BOTTOM: Looking over Simons Bay and False Bay toward Muizenberg. BOTTOM: Penguins, penguins and yet more penguins spread across the beach at Boulders.
LEFT: Erland and Linda, TOP RIGHT: Anton and Viljé at the southernmost tip of the Cape Peninsula. CENTRE RIGHT: Viljé investigating the marine fauna. BOTTOM RIGHT: Harald, Anne-Kirsten and a uncooperative Birk at the southernmost tip of the Cape Peninsula.
LEFT: Erland and Linda, TOP RIGHT: Anton and Viljé at the southernmost tip of the Cape Peninsula. CENTRE RIGHT: Viljé investigating the marine fauna. BOTTOM RIGHT: Harald, Anne-Kirsten and an uncooperative Birk at the southernmost tip of the Cape Peninsula.

On Sunday the 15th Harald, Anne-Kirsten, Erland and Linda departed for Gauteng from where they would head for the Kruger National Park and spend three days there before flying home to Norway.

TOP: Erland, Linda, Anne-Kirsten and Harald at the Cape Town International Airport prior to departure for Oliver Tambo in Gauteng on their way to the Kruger National Park BOTTOM Last minute selfies and messages before embarking with Harald partially decapitated.
TOP: Erland, Linda, Anne-Kirsten and Harald at the Cape Town International Airport prior to departure for Oliver Tambo in Gauteng on their way to the Kruger National Park BOTTOM: Last minute selfies and messages before embarking with Harald partially decapitated.

 

Astronomy for the Visually Impaired

Visit to the Durr Family in Malmesbury, viagra 10 May 2014

In Die Burger of 21 April 2014 an article by Blanche de Vries titled “Seun met swak sig maak deurbraak” (Eng. Boy with poor sight makes a breakthrough) caught Lynnette’s eye and she filed it with the intention that we would try and include Pieter-Jans Durr in our outreach plans for 2014. Lady Luck was on our side because in the meantime, cialis Dr Wanda Diaz-Merced, the blind astrophysicist from Puerto Rico, paid South Africa a visit, and was based at the International Astronomical Union’s Office for Development on the premises of the Southern African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in Observatory, Cape Town.

We mentioned Pieter-Jans to Wanda on Friday during discussions following her farewell lunch at the SAAO, and she expressed interest in meeting Pieter-Jans.  So when we arrived home, Lynnette set about contacting the Durr Family. There were five numbers listed for the surname Durr, but the very first number she tried turned out to be the jackpot: it was Pieter-Jans’s grandmother.  Wanda was due to address a combined parents and teachers meeting on Saturday morning at the Athlone School for the Blind in Bellville South but she would be finished by 10:30 or shortly afterwards.  We picked her up shortly after 11:00 and headed for Malmesbury. It rained intermittently on the way to Malmesbury, but we arrived on time at the Durr residence where we were warmly welcomed by Mrs Marie Durr, Pieter-Jans’s mother.

While we waited for Pieter-Jans, Marie filled us in on the family background. Pieter-Jans is the youngest of four children and he and his two older sisters all suffer from retinitis pigmentosa, generally abbreviated to RP.  His eldest sister attended the Pioneer School in Worcester before transferring back to a mainstream school in Malmesbury to complete her high schooling.  She then went on to complete a BA (Law) degree at the University of Stellenbosch. The second daughter matriculated at the Pioneer School in Worcester earning a place amongst the top ten in the Western Province. She is currently working on a master’s degree in Psychology at the University of Stellenbosch.  Pieter-Jans’s brother has no visual impediment.  He is a very capable Rugby player and is currently completing a degree in Physiotherapy at the University of Stellenbosch. Pieter-Jans himself was until recently a pupil at the Pioneer School in Worcester, but in 2014 he had expressed the wish transfer to the Swartland High School in his home town, Malmesbury.  By the time Wanda had related her background to Marie and we had finished the coffee and melktert, Pieter-Jans arrived.

Pieter-Jans admitted to knowing very little about astronomy, an omission which Wanda soon set about correcting with the aid of the posters from the “Touch the Invisible Sky” and “From the Earth to the Sky” series.  She also presented him with material she had brought along specifically to give to him.  Wanda soon had Pieter-Jans completely at his ease, and before long they were engaged in a lively discussion about the posters which Pieter-Jans eagerly examined.  Marie showed a keen interest in the posters and the discussion too, especially when Wanda pointed out the fact that only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum was visible to sighted people. By far the greater part had to be interpreted using instruments in any case, which is why she promotes converting signals to sound as a means for visually impaired people to participate in astronomy, because of their more acute hearing.

Peter-Jans with one of the posters Wande gave him
Peter-Jans with one of the posters Wande gave him
Wanda and Pieter-Jans warming to the topic of solar weather.
Wanda and Pieter-Jans warming to the topic of solar weather
Wanda and Marie exchange views while Pieter-Jans studies one of the TOuch the Invisible Universe posters
Wanda and Marie exchange views while Pieter-Jans studies one of the “Touch the Invisible Sky” posters
Marie and Pieter-Jans paying close attention while Wanda explains some finer points
Marie and Pieter-Jans paying close attention while Wanda explains some finer points

By the time Pieter-Jans’s father, John, arrived we were ready for a second round of coffee, melktert and rusks. John slipped effortlessly into the discussions and in-between talking, and sipping his coffee also took time to look at the posters.  After coffee John excused himself as he had promised to attend a rugby match in which his other son was playing.  Before he left though we did take a photograph of the family.

Wanda, Marie, Pieter-Jans, myself and John on the extreme right.  I am holding one of the "Touch the Invisible Universe" posters while John sips his coffee and looks at one of the "From the Earth to the Sky" posters
Wanda, Marie, Pieter-Jans, myself and John on the extreme right. I am holding one of the “Touch the Invisible Sky” posters while John sips his coffee and looks at one of the “From the Earth to the Sky” posters
John attending to the fire Wanda, Marie and Pieter-Jans with one of teh "Touch the Invisible Sky" posters
John attending to the fire Wanda, Marie and Pieter-Jans with one of teh “Touch the Invisible Sky” posters

Lynnette and I would like to thank Marie and John for welcoming us, total strangers, into their home and on such short notice too. We intend going back as soon as possible to visit Pieter-Jans and to expand his astronomy knowledge.  On subsequent visits we also hope to discuss astronomy with his classmates and his science teacher.

Wanda and Pieter-Jans holding one of the "From the Earth to the Sky" posters
Wanda and Pieter-Jans holding one of the “From the Earth to the Sky” posters
The Durr family with Wanda: John on the left, Wanda, Pieter-Jans and Marie on the right
Wanda with the The Durr family of Malmesbury: John on the left, Wanda, Pieter-Jans and Marie on the right

Down on Earth and up in the Sky in the Karoo

Field trip with Dr Juri van den Heever and the honours students from the Department of Botany & Zoology at the University of Stellenbosch.  17 – 22 March 2014

This is a diary of the six day event with lots of pictures to illustrate the text.  I must first give some background about the tour and its origins to put all readers in the picture.  Juri van den Heever, the architect of the tour, moved from the South African Museum to the Department of Zoology at Stellenbosch in 1987.  In 1988 he took the first of these tours as part of the Honours course and has been taking them ever since.  I had been with the Department of Biochemistry at Stellenbosch University since 1985 and, as Juri and I had been at school together, we were able to renew our friendship when he came to Stellenbosch.  This led to him asking me if I would like to participate in the tours and fill in on the Biochemistry of plants as well as some other aspects.  The tour provides the students with information on Geology, Vertebrate anatomy, Palaeontology, Plants and plant usage, Insects, Birds, Ecology of the areas visited, History, Culture, Geography, Astronomy and, last but not least, the opportunity to participate in discussions on science in general and the philosophy of science and being a scientist.

So, from around 1994 or so, we have been in this together, although I skipped one or two due to pressure of work at Biochemistry or some other immovable commitment.  Over the years we have also taken members of the public, high school learners and fellow colleagues at the University on these tours, whenever there have been seats open in the vehicles.  These “outsiders” have very often made valuable contributions to the range and depth of the topics touched on during the tour.  One interesting feature of these trips over the years has been the large number of our University colleagues who have annually committed themselves very enthusiastically to participate in the next trip only to pull out at the last minute.  This year we had 14 students from the Department of Botany and Zoology and one member of the public, Peter Müller, a retired Wood Technologist.

Monday 17th March

Just after 06:30 on Monday the 17th of March, Lynnette dropped me off at the University’s vehicle park where Juri was already inspecting the two Toyotas and completing the paperwork.  We hooked on the two trailers and shortly before 07:00 we were parked outside the Department and the students could begin to load their gear, the supplies and other equipment for the week.  Shortly after 07:00 Juri gave the first briefing and then we embarked and headed out of Stellenbosch toward the West Coast Fossil Park near Langebaanweg.  Our route took us through Malmesbury, which has a tepid, sulphur chloride spring that once attracted many ailing Capetonians to a Sanatorium that was built there.  A shopping centre now covers the site.

After turning off the N7 onto the R45, our route took us across the undulating hills of weathered Malmesbury shale that form the wheat fields of the Swartland (Black Land), These were once covered in Renosterbos (Elytropappus rhinocerotis), which is the signature plant on weathered shale and mudstone throughout our area.  Its dark colouring, when seen from a distance, was probably the origin of the name Swartland.  Once past the Moorreesburg turnoff, the countryside gradually changed to alluvial sand covered in restios interspersed with small and medium sized shrubs.  Just after the small settlement of Koperfontein we passed the brand new 66 MW Hopefield wind farm owned by Umoya Energy.  The farm became operational in February 2014 and develops sufficient energy to power 70 000 low-income homes or 29 000 medium-income homes, when the wind blows. Go here to read a short article on this wind farm.

The R45 bypasses the town of Hopefield, a fact which has turned the town into a virtual ghost town. Between Hopefield and the Air Force Base at Langebaanweg, the markers of the pipeline bringing water to the West Coast from Voëlvlei dam can be seen at intervals on one’s right and, shortly after Langebaanweg, we turned off the R45 into the Park.  The Park was originally a Chemfos phosphate mine, but after the closure of the mine in 1993, it was declared a National Monument Site in 1996.  The Park, now covering about 700ha, was officially launched in 1998. It is currently under the control of the Iziko Museums of Cape Town, and is managed by Pippa Haarhoff.  It has recently been declared a National Heritage Site.  The following site gives more information on the Park.  The fossils date back about 5.2 million years to the late Miocene/early Pliocene era.  Go here for more information on this exceptional area.  After some refreshments at the visitors centre we got back into the vehicles and followed the guide, Wendy Wentzel, down to the dig site.

DSC_6040_Wendy_Wentzel_Group_WCFP
Wendy briefing us on the background of the area and the dig site
DSC_6044_Attention_x13_WCFP
The group lined up listening to Wendy. Angus is to the left out of the picture and Peter to the right also out of the picture

The dig site is in the old ‘E’ Quarry area and displays an astounding array of fossils.  Wendy ran us through an informative description of the various animals found at the site, the conditions thought to have existed when the animals died and the methods used to uncover the fossils.  The majority of the bones visible seem to be those of the short-necked giraffe or Sivathere but there is evidence of wales, seals, various elephants and different sabre toothed cats as well.  The only bear south of the Sahara was also found at the Park in the smaller dig site adjacent to the larger one visited by the general public.  Shark teeth found here are evidence for the existence of a behemoth that would have dwarfed the infamous cinematic Jaws.  After the talk we moved outside to the sorting trays where everyone had a go at finding the fossil remains of the smaller animals such as mice, frogs and moles.  Then back to the vehicles to return to the visitors centre for a quick bite to eat, something to drink and a visit to the essential amenities before departing on the next leg of our journey.

DSC_6045_Claire_Benjamin_Dale_Different_Reactions_WCFP
Dismay, amazement and indifference? I do not really think so but you’d best ask Claire, Benjamin and Dale yourself
DSC_6051_Bones1_WCFP
5.2 million year old carnage. The bottle does not date back that far
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A reconstruction of the Southern African bear. Check out the size comparison with a human
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The short necked giraffe or Sivathere compared to a human. This was a big animal and, judging by the bones here quite common too
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Wendy instructing the group on how to find the really small stuff

We retraced or route past Hopefield and shortly after Koperfontein we turned left to Moorreesburg.  On that stretch of road we had an excellent view of the ancient termite mounds or “heuweltjies” that give the fields such a lumpy appearance.  These mounds were already alluded to by the 18th century Astronomer and Geodesist, Nicolas-Louis De La Caille.  Go here to read the section in Dr. Ian Glass’s book on De la Caille. For a more recent and scientific coverage of the topic you can go here to read an article published by the Department of Soil Science at the University of Stellenbosch.  We passed through Moorreesburg which considers itself the “heart” of the Swartland wheat industry and actually boasts a wheat industry museum, one of only three in the world.

We then headed for the twin towns of Riebeek West and Riebeek Kasteel.  Just outside the former we passed the cement factory of PPC (Pretoria Portland Cement) where one can visit the restored house in which General Jan Christian Smuts was born.  Smuts, educated at the Victoria College, later the University of Stellenbosch, and Christ’s College at Cambridge University, went on to become State Attorney of the Transvaal Republic, a successful general in the Anglo-South African War and eventually Prime minister of South Africa.  Daniel Francois Malan, the first Prime Minister to actively apply the basic principles of institutionalized apartheid after the 1948 elections, was also born in Riebeek West. These two towns lie on the slopes of the Kasteelberg.  From these two towns one has a sweeping view of the Northward tending arm Cape Fold Mountains from the Limietberg behind Wellington through the Winterhoek west of Tulbagh and on into the Cederberg where the peak of Cederberg Sneeukop can just be made out.

We left Kasteelberg behind, crossed the Berg River and just after passing the hamlet of Hermon, we turned left on the R46.  Our route took us past the blockhouse that once guarded the railway line during the Anglo-South African war and then Voëlvlei dam, one of the major sources of water for Cape Town and the West Coast before passing into Nuwekloof through which the Little Berg River exits on its way to join the Berg River several kilometers beyond the village of Gouda.  In 1739 the head and right hand of the infamous Estiénne Barbier were placed in this area after his execution as a gruesome warning to anyone contemplating an uprising against the VOC.  In Nuwekloof one can still see the dry stone wall supporting Andrew Bain’s road which was in use for more than a hundred years until it was replaced by the present road in 1968.  The road then passes into the Land of Wavern, south of Tulbagh and heads up the valley of the Little Berg river with the Witzenberg rising on the left and, on the right, the Elandsberg which is replaced by the Watervalsberg once one has crossed the watershed at Artois. It then swings to the left, passing North of Wolesely and shortly afterward entering Michell’s Pass.

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Lunch al fresco in Michell’s Pass on a section of Andrew Bain’s old road
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The after lunch lecture in Michell’s Pass

In Michell’s Pass we stopped on the only section of Andrew Bain’s road that has been preserved.  Out came the tables and food and, while a light lunch was enjoyed, Juri spoke at length about Bain, the founding of the town of Ceres and the true origins of the town’s name as well as the tremendous importance of the pass at the time it was constructed.  After lunch we packed up before inspecting the impressive dry stone walls of the old road and then drove the last bit of the pass into Ceres where we filled up with fuel and everyone had an opportunity to visit a small supermarket.  Our next stop was the pharmacy to so that Benjamin could buy medication for the Otitis Media he had developed.  We finally left Ceres heading for Eselfontein, the farm of Gideon and Janine Malherbe where we would look for fossils in a quarry and spend the night in their Ecocamp.  Driving out to the farm the road ran across extensive beds of Bokkeveld sediments with the Skurweberg’s younger sandstone layers sloping down under them from our right.  In the distance on our left were the cliffs of Gydoberg and the Waboomsberg rising high above the northern edge of the Ceres valley.

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The quarry on Eselfontein with typical Renosterbos veld in the background and students in the foreground
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Benjamin’s Trilobite find.
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The campfire at the Ecocamp on Eselfontein with the pointers to the Southern Cross prominent in the night sky in the background

We spent time in the quarry giving everyone the opportunity to experience the thrill of finding a fossil.  That special feeling when you crack open the rock and see it, knowing you are not only the first human but the only human to ever have seen the creature that has been entombed in the sediment for several hundred million years.  Many shell imprints were found from a variety of families as well as several fragments of trilobites.  The prize find of the afternoon was Benjamin’s trilobite.  Fairly late in the afternoon we packed up and drove up the fairly rigged road to the Ecocamp where we unpacked and set about preparing supper.  Benjamin and Dale did their first of several stints at the fire on the trip, grilling the chicken to perfection.  Benjamin’s approach is that he would rather cook every evening than wash dishes.  Juri, Claire and Sheree’s potato salad went down very well too.  Unforeseen problems with the water supply meant that we all had to wash in the adjacent mountain stream.  There was very little interest in astronomy as most people were pretty tired after the long day but, nevertheless, the Moon, just one day past full moon, rising behind the pine forest made quite a spectacular site.

Tuesday 18th March

At 07:00 Juri started the day by getting everybody up and moving in the direction of breakfast after which we packed up, packed everything into the vehicles and the trailers and set off on the first leg of day two.  This entailed a short drive in the direction of Lakenvlei dam, then past Matroosberg to Okkie Geldenhuys’s farm Matjiesrivier, where we collected our annual allocation of peaches.  With the sandstone of the Cape fold mountains behind us, but still standing on Bokkeveld sediments, the view to the north of the farm gave us our first view of the Witteberg sediments.

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Early morning at Eselfontein with the moon peeking between the branches of a Protea bush and the morning sun touching the mountains in the background.
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Juri delivers the morning talk on what the day has in store for everyone
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We start moving out of the Ecocamp on Eselfontein
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The historic homestead on Matjiesrivier

Shortly after leaving the farm we picked up the R46 again and headed East toward the N1 and our first fossil stop of the day near the game farm Aquila.  On the way there we passed Verkeerdevlei, the original water supply for Touws River and a forlorn looking Dakota aircraft parked amongst some scraggy looking pines in a military training area.  About 300m before reaching Aquila, we pulled over and got out to look for Zoophycos, one of the few fossils one finds readily in the Witteberg sediments.  After finding some examples and making sure everyone knew what it looked like we departed.  As we drove away, we had a good view of Aquila’s huge automated solar energy installation that produces 60 kW of electricity by means of a Concentrator Photovoltaic system.  The area around the solar panels also houses the lion rehabilitation pens as a deterrent to would be thieves.  This system forms part of an eventual 50 MW installation currently under construction.  Go here to read more about this exciting installation.

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Roadside talk on the Witteberg sediments and the fossils the group might expect to find there
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The panels of the Solar installation just across the road from the Game Farm, Aquila.
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They are probably wondering where to start

Our next stop was Touws River for acquiring refreshments and use of the amenities and then we were off again headed for the Logan Cemetery on the N1.  Although the mountains around us were all Witteberg deposits, we were soon driving on the frist of the Ecca deposits and about 10 km north of the town the first patch of Dwyka tillite, a glacial deposit, appeared to the left of the road.  Also fairly abundant along the N1 was the yellowish Kraalbos (Galena Africana), a pioneer shrub that takes over in disturbed or overgrazed areas.  It can, however, proliferate to the point where it suppresses the regrowth of other plants.  As we progressed in the direction of Matjiesfontein, we saw more and more  Dwyka tillite on either side of the road and the Witteberg Mountains to the south also became more and more prominent.  When parked at the Logan cemetery one can see good examples of Ecca, Witteberg and Dwyka.

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The group gathered around Andrew Wauchope’s gravestone. An identical one was erected at his birthplace in Scotland
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Major-General Andrew Gilbert Wauchope was a much admired officer in the British Army
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Jimmy and Emma Logan’s gravestones
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A memorial from friends and colleagues to John Grant who was killed in an accident during construction work on the railway

At the cemetery Juri discussed the mystery surrounding the burial of Major-General Andrew Gilbert Wauchope (known as Red Mick) in this spot.  He was the commander of the 3rd (Highland) Brigade at the Battle of Magersfontein on the 11th of December 1899 in the Anglo-South-African War and was killed in the opening minutes of the battle.  His wife Jane gave instructions that he should be buried where he fell – at Magersfontein – and yet he lies here.  Also buried here is James Douglas Logan, the founder of the little town of Matjiesfontein, owner of the farm Tweedside and Member of the Cape Parliament, his wife and several family members.  A little further away is the grave of George Alfred Lohmann a phenomenal English cricketer of the late 1800’s who, despite several trips to recuperate at Matjiesfontein, eventually lost his battle against tuberculosis.  After taking a look at the obelisk commemorating Wauchope higher up on the hill and examining the Dwyka tillite on the hillside, we left for Sutherland.

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Juri and the students gathered around the memorial commemorating Andrew Wauchope. Note the pointy outcrops of Dwyka tillite on the hillside
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George Alfred Lohmann’s gravestone
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A most appropriate symbolic indication that a great cricketer had finally been bowled out
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In memory of private Doyle of the Royal Scots Greys. One wonders how many of these grave markers are scattered across the world commemorating young men who died “For King/Queen and country”

On the way to Sutherland we took note of the various sizes of the drop-stones in the cuttings through the Dwyka tillite and also pointed out the various outcrops of the Whitehill Formation, a distinctive stratigraphic unit near the base of the Ecca group and stressed its importance as a repository of Mesosaurus, fish and insect fossils from the early Permian.  As we progressed northward we crossed the Collingham Formation, a section of volcanic ash and eventually arrived amongst the Beaufort or Karoo sediments which were deposited on land by huge meandering rivers in a gigantic basin that stretched right across the present day South Africa.  At a deep cutting about one km after crossing the Tanqua River, we stopped to look at the exposed mudstone and sandstone beds so typical of the Karoo sediments and also to explain to the students how the early Karoo Basin was filled in.

In Sutherland we visited Mr Eddie Marais, who in his youth had the privilege of collecting with Dr L. D. Boonstra.  Mr Marais has a collection of artefacts that Juri used to explain to the students what they could expect in the field the following day and how to distinguish between calciferous nodules and actual bone.  He also took the opportunity to discuss the development of the Karoo fauna and explained the gradual transition of true reptiles to mammal-like reptiles and later to true mammals which could be observed in the fossil record of the Karoo sediments.  After enjoying the refreshments graciously supplied by Mrs Marais, we left to refuel the vehicles.

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Everything nicely set out by Mrs Marais in her garden and all we now needed were the people to enjoy the spread
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The pet graveyard in the Marais’s garden; pet rooster on the left followed by three cats

On our way to Fraserburg we passed the SAAO site where SALT and all the other South African telescopes are situated.  On arrival at Fraserburg, we unloaded and Karin showed us to our rooms and as soon as the children in the hostel had left the dining hall, we moved into the kitchen to prepare supper.  The end result of the kitchen team was a delicious pasta dish.  After supper there was some astronomy discussion with various members of the group and most of the group went to bed in preparation for a long day on Wednesday.

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Pasta supper on the first evening in Huis Retief, the School hostel in Fraserburg

Wednesday 19th March

We were in the dining room shortly after eight to have breakfast and then we set off for the local museum which is housed in the old Pastorie of the Dutch Reformed Church.  The very friendly person in charge of the museum, Don Pedro Malan welcomed us at the museum and Juri set about giving a detailed explanation of the fossils on display.  His explanation also covered the development of the various groups of animals that had been present in the Karoo basin during the period when it was filling up. After his talk everyone had the opportunity to look more closely at the fossil display and look around the museum in general before we set of to Droogvoetsfontein, where we met up with Mr Pieter Conradie.  We all piled onto and into his pickup for a trip into the veld and then back to our vehicles which Juri and I then drove to the next stop while Pieter ferried the students there.  Juri and I then rejoined the crowd on the pickup for the trip to where he had found a fossil, or at least bits of a fossil.  As with many of the fossils in the Karoo lying exposed on the surface the elements take their toll and this one had not fared any better.  All that was left, were a few scraps of nondescript bone not worth collecting and the surroundings also suggested that these had probably washed in from elsewhere in any case.  Back on the pickup and back to the vehicles for a short drive before we dispersed in all directions to look for the elusive fossils.  After about two hours I had found some pieces of rib bone and others had found another badly weathered fossil on the slope of a hill.

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The Old Pastorie Museum in Fraserburg
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Jurie running through the fossil display in the museum and explaining the relationships between reptiles, dinosaurs and mammal-like reptiles

 

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Benjamin and Dale discussing the day’s programme, or are they planning the evening’s braai?
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Pieter Conradie (snr) and Johannes closing the gate. Juri and I still had to clamber aboard
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The immensity of the Karoo dwarfs members of the group as they scour the veld for fossils
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Some members of the team found something but, unfortunately, not worth collecting
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Lunch is served under the trees on the farm Dagbreek

Back to the vehicles and off we went to Pieter’s farm, Dagbreek, where we prepared a light lunch in the shade of a tree.  The new-born lambs were an immediate hit with the students.  After lunch we set off again, but this time with Pieter on his motorcycle leading the way.  After an interesting drive, we arrived at the next farm, Onderplaas, disembarked and set off on foot down a riverbed with scattered pools of water and muddy patches amongst the grass to trap the unwary.  What was left of this fossil was still firmly embedded in the rock, but most of it had been worn away by the perennial flooding of the river.  Disappointed we trudged back to the farmyard, said our goodbyes and set off for our next contact, also Pieter Conradie, the son of the first Pieter Conradie.  He and his wife Marisa were waiting at the appointed place with their three lively children and our prickly pears.  Pieter excitedly led us up a hill to look at his fossil, which unfortunately turned out to be a collection of calciferous nodules; his disappointment was quite tangible.

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A fossil at last on the farm Onderplaas but also to far gone to make it worth trying to take it out

Our group did a quick recce, found nothing and then set off after Pieter Jnr for refreshments at his farm Middelfontein a few kilometres down the road.  Refreshments, in addition to cool drinks, consisted of chilled prickly pears, ice cream and various delicious liqueurs to be used as toppings.  I, for one, made an absolute pig of myself with the prickly pears and ate 50 of them!  After some small talk with the Pieter and his wife and their three cats, we said goodbye and headed back to Fraserberg, anxious to get there before the shops closed as the beer supply was running low.  We rounded the day off with a congenial braai, once again executed by Dale and Benjamin in a masterly fashion.  We did some astronomy too for those who were interested and then went to bed.

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Chilled prickly pears and ice cream on the farm Middelfontein courtesy of Pieter Conradie (jnr) and his wife Marisa
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A braai back at the school hostel rounds of the day

Thursday 20th March

Today is the autumn equinox when the sun is exactly over the equator on its way north and the day and night should be the same length.  It also signals the start of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere and spring in the Northern Hemisphere.  These facts did not really seem to impress anyone, so I didn’t push the matter.  Anyway, we were packed up and finished with breakfast shortly after eight – at least most of us were!  Then we set out on the Williston road to the palaeosurface on the farm Gansefontein.  It is very sad to see the systematic deterioration of this site when we visit it every year.  All Coenie De Beer’s efforts since he took a month’s unpaid leave from the Geological Survey in Pretoria 25 years ago and came down here on his motorcycle to map and measure the then freshly exposed surface, have been in vein.  Well, not quite in vain, because an insurance company donated money to put a fence around the site and put up a notice board.  What is really needed is a building to cover the existing site and money to uncover more of the surface around the existing site, but as things stand now, the non-preservation of this site is actually a disgrace for South Africa.

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Breakfast discussion on the last morning in Fraserburg and Juri explains how high we will have to climb
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The palaeosurface on the farm Gansefontein. The white markers outline the areas one should not walk on
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The Geological Society of Southern Africa’s notice explaining what may be seem on the palaeosurface
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Juri interprets the bones. Sorry, that should be traces and tracks
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A great, great, great, great, great, great, great – and then a lot more greats – grandchild of the animals that made some of the tracks at the palaeosurface

After the visit to the Palaeosurface we made a quick stop for biltong and dried sausage and then set off down the R356 toward the Theekloof Pass and our next destination.  Theekloof Pass is potentially one of the most spectacular passes, if not in the country, then most certainly in the Western Cape Province.  After the obligatory stop for photos half way down, we continued our descent into the lower regions of the Karoo.  The pass also affords one an unprecedented view of the layered nature of the Karoo sediments with their alternating sandstone and mudstone layers, broken by dolerite sills and dykes in many places.  Upon arrival at Rooiheuwel, the farm of Flip and Marge Vivier, we were enthusiastically welcomed by the Jack Russels and an overzealous Boxer before being taken inside for a welcome cool drink.  Once that was done, we set off to look at a fossil on a neighbouring farm, which was “just around the corner”. Those of you who do not know the Karoo, should beware as this phrase could mean anything from 15 to, as we have experienced, 40 or more kilometres.

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Tafelkop and Spitzkop with the vast expanse of the Karoo spread out southward as seen from a vantage point in Theekloofpass
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A view up the pass with some of the group members perched on the edge of the kloof
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The house of Flip and Marge Vivier on the farm Rooiheuwel
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I found a new species of goat – a Zebra Goat

When we finally stopped and disembarked, Flip indicated that the fossil was “just over there”, pointing at a fairly distant hill on the other side of a dry riverbed, so of we went,  The fossil was also a disappointment.  Almost definitely a Pareiasaurus, but apparently lying on its left side with the tail, pelvic girdle, right limbs and ribs all missing.  The head was very probably also no longer there, so we decided to leave it there to continue its losing battle with time and erosion.  Back to the vehicles and to Rooiheuwel for a quick lunch and then a short drive to a place where we could get into the veldt to look for fossils again.  Once again no luck, so we drove off to explore for likely fossil sites.  One problem on this farm is that the vegetation cover is quite dense and the potential fossil areas are well hidden until you are right on top of them and finding traces of bone would then be doubly difficult too.  We returned to the farm, said goodbye and drove to Merweville, our overnight stop.  Juri’s vehicle was running low on fuel so he drove quite slowly to conserve what he had, but eventually we got there.

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Juri pronouncing judgement on the fossil remains of a Pareiasaurus.on the farm De Krans
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Juri holding a single vertebra and one can clearly see how badly it has been eroded. The bone surface has been removed exposing the spongelike inner structure
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Our ever hopeful band of searchers combs the hillside on the off chance they will find a skull or perhaps a tooth or two
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In the far distance Tafelkop and Spitzkop which lie just below the Theekloofpass
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Rule in fossil hunter’s guidebook: It always takes longer to get back to the vehicles from the site than it took to get to the site from the vehicles when you didn’t find anything
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The usual lunch in the shade of a tree, but this time on the farm Rooiheuwel
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Yet once again we return empty handed
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Juri and our host on Rooiheuwel, Flip Vivier, in a serious discussion
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Sunset from the grounds of the school hostel in Merweville
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Beware! In Merweville they have thorns, lots and lots of them

At Huis Mervia, the local school hostel, we unloaded and Juri set off to find the local parson of the Dutch Reformed Church, who had promised the group could go up into the church tower and out onto the catwalk to admire the view.  He found him and off they went.  In the meantime, the braai-maestros were getting the fire ready for their next culinary tour de force.  As an entrée, we had slices of bread from two huge farm loaves baked by Mrs Blom, the hostel matron, and then it was Karoo lamb a la Dale and Benjamin, with onions and butternut wrapped in tin foil and grilled to perfection on the fire.  Some astronomy after supper and then most of us turned in for the night.

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Opuntia infestation, the scourge of the Karoo, on the grounds of the hostel in Merweville
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Huis Mervia, the school hostel in Merweville
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The clan is gathering for the evening’s festivities in Merweville
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Merweville and the two iconic symbols of all small Karoo towns, the windmills and the church tower

Friday 21st March

It was a public holiday which we assumed would not affect us, but it eventually did.  I went into town to refuel my vehicle, came back and had breakfast before we packed up and left to visit our fossil on Hendrik Botes’s farm Jakhalsfontein, which is spelt oddly as you can see.  Juri thinks the fossil might actually be on Vaalleegte and we should really resolve the discrepancy someday. En route we passed the turnoff to the tragic Englishman’s grave, but that story will have to wait.  Once on the farm, we unhooked the trailers for the long drive to our fossil dig site where we have been letting successive groups of students systematically excavate, what we hope is a fairly complete Pareiasaurus.  It is quite a long walk from where we park the vehicles, but once there, we rotated and some hacked away with hammers while others scoured the area for other fossils.  About two hours of hacking away and Juri decided to call it a day and head back to the vehicles.  Eventually everyone was back and aboard so we could turn round, drive back, hook up the trailers go to an unoccupied house further down the road and his house is definitely on Jakhalsfontein.  We had lunch on the veranda or, as it is called locally, the stoep.  During the lunch break, some quinces were picked under Juri’s expert tutelage so we could have stewed quinces and cream for dessert that evening.

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And into the veld once more led, as usual, by Juri. The fossil is just over that far hill
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Some hacked and some searched. Our Pareiasaurus is under that white lump of plaster of Paris in the centre of the seated group of hackers
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The Karoo is vast – have I said that before? Peter Müller is just visible centre right and in the background the blue line of the Swartberg Mountains. One can just make out the gap where Seweweekspoort is and, just to the right of that Seweweekspoort Peak and, a little further to the right of that the magical  mountain,Towerkop
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Home we go until we bring the next group in 2015, maybe
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It might be a long way to Tipperary but I think it’s further to those vehicles
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Zoomed in on Towerkop . Now see if you can find it on the previous photo
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Lunch on the stoep of the old Jakhalsfontein house

After lunch we made a quick stop at the café in Prince Albert Road and an essential pit stop for some members of the group before hitting the N1 and heading south to Laingsburg.  This took us out of the Karoo sediments and onto the Ecca which were laid down just offshore in huge estuaries.  We arrived at Laingsburg to find the liquor store open, but the supermarket closed so we had beer but no cream and we also needed sour cream for the potjiekos Dale was going to prepare for supper.  We checked some of the other obvious possibilities for cream and sour cream, but none produced the goods.  So we drove to the sports fields where we were going to spend the night in the clubhouse and, after unloading, I went and investigated one more possible source for the cream and sour cream, but that also turned out to be a dead end.  Dale had found ways to improvise his way around the sour cream, but the prospects looked grim for the stewed quinces.

It is a pity the Flood Museum commemorating the disastrous flood of 1981 was closed as I would have liked the students to see it.  If you visit Laingsburg pay the museum a visit and then drive down to the railway bridge, get out of your car and stand under the bridge.  When you look up consider the fact that, on that fateful day, the water was lapping the rails on top of the bridge before the embankment at the eastern end gave way.  Just for a moment consider the entire valley filled to that depth with churning, muddy water. It is a chilling thought I can assure you.

Dale’s potjiekos and rice was excellent.  Actually it wasn’t, it was superb!  After lots of philosophical discussions, there was some down to earth stuff too, we tidied up and went to bed.  As I was having the last conversation with Juri, before we finally went to bed, he remembered that he had forgotten to cook the quinces.  I had actually wondered about this after supper, but assumed the lack of cream was to blame.

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Hows that for camouflage
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Relaxing outside the Clubhouse at the Laingsburg Sports-fields
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The streak of light is Dale buzzing around his potjiekos in the background

Saturday 22nd March

While gathering the troops, it turned out that rather than make their own breakfast, everyone was in favour of picking up coffee and whatever from the local Wimpy and heading south as quickly as possible.  A few kilometres outside Laingsburg, we crossed into the ancient lake basin again and could clearly see the tell-tale white slopes on either side of the road.  Before long we encountered the first of the Dwyka tillite and shortly after that, the Witteberg Mountains came into sight on our left.  Just before Touws River we encountered the first of several stop-and-go sections where the National Roads Agency was undertaking extensive road works all the way down to the Hex River Pass.  Topping the rise just before the farm Kleinstraat, we had a good view of Aquila’s second solar farm with 1 500 panels, being built by the French firm, Soitec, which was nearing completion.  The installation will provide 50 MW (peak DC) power and provide a 36 MW AC output to the local grid.   This makes it one of the largest plants of its kind in the world.  Go here to read more about the installation about the installation.  You can also go to this link for more information.

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Loading up to move out from Laingsburg on the last morning
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The whole group with a high hill of Ecca sediments in the background.

From this point we were on the Bokkeveld shale again and, as we navigated the Hex Pass and skirted De Doorns and Orchard, we moved further and further into the sandstone layers of the earlier deposits.  By the time we exited the Hex River Valley we had left the Bokkeveld behind us and the sandstone layers towered high above our heads.  Shortly after leaving the Hex River Valley, we pulled into the De Wet Cooperative Winery where we traditionally stopped to sample their Muscadels and Ports.  Just across the road from the winery was an impressive hill of Malmesbury shale lifted upward by the rising magma millions of years ago.  As the magma cooled and formed granite, the heat baked the otherwise fairly crumbly shale into a hard metamorphic rock the geologists call Hornfels.  This is mined in a quarry on the Worcester side of the hill and produces the blue-grey chips ubiquitously used in road making.

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At De Wet Cooperative wine cellar. On the immediate left is a high hill of Malmesbury shale and the mountains in the background are younger sandstones of the Table Mountain group
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Sampling the fruit of the vine at De Wet Cooperative Cellar on the N1

From De Wet we took a back road via Nonna, Overhex and Aan de Doorns to Eilandia and the quarry where we hoped to find more insect fossils and perhaps a fish or too and just maybe a Mesosaurus. At the quarry Juri and I were somewhat concerned by the fact that there had been considerable excavation since our last visit, and access to the specific section that usually produced the insects, was quite precarious; in fact rather dangerous.  Apart from Juri having a rather nasty fall, it all went well.  We came away with several Notocaris imprints, a fantastic leaf imprint thanks to Robyn and section of Mesosaurus backbone courtesy of Nombuso.  A snap vote before we left decided against stopping for lunch so we would head straight back to Stellenbosch.  One got the distinct impression that the students felt it was a case of “Home James, and don’t spare the horses”.

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Final briefing of the trip from Juri before we tackle the quarry in the Whitehill Formation at Eilandia
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This is really a very tricky site to work in now that it has been escavated to an almost vertical slope
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Take the fence post just left of centre and measure three lengths of that post down from the top edge of the slope. There is a thin grey line of bentonite there. The insects are usually found just above the bentonite
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Up we go for the last dig and hack of the trip
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The exceptional leaf imprint Robyn found
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The section of Mesosaurus backbone found by Nombuso
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The circular patches caused by the termite mounds. They change the soil’s composition and structure creating micro-habitats that are preferential growth areas for specific plants. These areas then stand out against the surrounding vegetation

I stopped to take photos of the clearly visible termite mounds on the slope of a hill that we passed. Our route took us past Brandvlei dam and then through Rawsonville and Du Toit’s Kloof Pass where Juri elected to avoid the Huguenot Tunnel and drive over the pass, which is the route to take if you want to enjoy a spectacular view.  After unloading at the Department and saying all the goodbyes I went and dropped off the trailer and then delivered the vehicle to the vehicle park, where Lynnette was already waiting.  We stowed all my gear away and then went back to the Department to pick up Lona, who also lives in Brackenfell and had asked if we could give her a lift home.

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Unloading in front of the Department and 2014’s trip has come to an end
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Juri ticks off the all important hammer register as everyone hands back their geological hammers

All that was left for me to do, was to work through all 500 photos that I had taken and write this report.  The report writing was seriously disrupted by the need to complete our application for a National Science Week grant from the NRF via SAASTA.